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Questions on Organizational Behavior

Prepared by Dr. Stephen Hartman, School of Management, New York Institute of Technology.

. What are some of the new challenges confronting managers in todays business environment?

The global, one-world economy is changing the nature of competition. The second generation of the Information Age, marked by advances in decision support and telecommunications technology, is changing the nature of work in all organizations.

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The quality Service Revolution is changing the focus of competition among world competitors as product and service quality become increasingly important to consumers, both internally and externally.

. What are the three dimensions of management and how are they important.

The three dimension of management are technical, conceptual, and human. It is absolutely essential for managers to develop meaningful solutions to todays complex management problems by using innovative technological solutions that provide answers to problems people and organizations are having. Furthermore, it is critical to managements success that they be able to meaningfully understand human resource needs and be able to successfully deploy these

5. Discuss Henri Fayols contributions to organizational theory.

Henri Fayol has been called the father of management. Henri Fayol was a successful French industrialist. He also created the first school of management. He was responsible for developing the major classical management concepts of planning, organizing, developing, staffing, coordinating, and budgeting (PODSCORB). He also was the first to develop the importance of lateral communications with his gang plank theory of communications in organization.

Henri Fayol belongs to the administrative management branch of the classical school. His entire working career was spent with a mining company, Commentary-Fourchambault Company, where he rose from an apprentice to General Manager in 1888 remaining there until his retirement in 118. He is credited with turning the company around from a threatened bankruptcy into a strong financial position by the time of his retirement at age 77.

As a result of his management experience, Fayol strongly believed management theories could be developed and taught to others. His first writing on administration, Administration Industrielle et Generale, was published in 116 in the Bulletin of the Society of Mineral Industries and later appeared as a book. The book became prominent in the United States after a second English translation appeared in 14 under the title General and Industrial Management.

Henri Fayols Fourteen Management Principles

a. Division of Work. Division of work, specialization, produces more and better work with the same effort. It focuses effort while maximizing employee efforts. It is applicable to all work including technical applications. There are limitations to specialization which are determined by its application.

b. Authority and responsibility. Authority is the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Distinction must be made between a managers official authority deriving from office and personal authority created through individual personality, intelligence and experience. Authority creates responsibility.

c. Discipline. Obedience and respect between a firm and its employees based on clear and fair agreements is absolutely essential to the functioning of any organization. Good discipline requires managers to apply sanctions whenever violations become apparent.

d. Unity of command. An employee should receive orders from only one superior. Employees cannot adapt to dual command.

e. Unity of direction. Organizational activities must have one central authority and one plan of action.

f. Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest. The interests of one employee or group of employees are subordinate to the interests and goals of the organization and cannot prevail over it.

g. Remuneration of Personnel. Salaries are the price of services rendered by employees. It should be fair and provide satisfaction both to the employee and employer. The rate of remuneration is dependent on the value of the services rendered as determined by the employment market.

h. Centralization. The optimum degree of centralization varies according to the dynamics of each organization. The objective of centralization is the best utilization of personnel.

i. Scalar chain. A chain of authority exists from the highest organizational authority to the lowest ranks. While needless departure from the chain of command should be discouraged, using the gang plank principle of direct communication between employees can be extremely expeditious and increase the effectiveness of organizational communication.

j. Order. Organizational order for materials and personnel is essential. The right materials and the right employees are necessary for each organizational function and activity.

l. Equity. In organizations equity is a combination of kindliness and justice. The desire for equity and equality of treatment are aspirations to be taken into account in dealing with employees.

m. Stability of Tenure of Personnel. In order to attain the maximum productivity of personnel, it is essential to maintain a stable work force. Management insecurity produces undesirable consequences. Generally the managerial personnel of prosperous concerns is stable, that of unsuccessful ones is unstable.

n. Initiative. Thinking out a plan and ensuring its success is an extremely strong motivator. At all levels of the organizational ladder zeal and energy on t he part of employees are augmented by initiative.

o Esprit de Corps. Teamwork is fundamentally important to an organization. This is encouraged by creating work teams and using extensive face-to-face verbal communication.

While subsequent organizational research has created controversy over many of Fayols principles, they are still widely used in management theory.

6. Discuss Max Webers contributions to organizational theory.

Max Weber can be classified in the bureaucratic management branch of the classical school. Weber, the son of a prominent Bismarckian era German politician, was raised in Berlin and studied law at the University of Berlin. After assuming an appointment teaching law at the University of Berlin, Weber assumed teaching appointments in economics at the Universities of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Vienna, ending with his death after a bout with pneumonia.

Webers interest in organizations evolves from his view of the institutionalization of power and authority in the modern Western world. He constructed a rational-legal authority model of an ideal type bureaucracy. This ideal type rested on a belief in the legality of patterns of normative rules and the right of those elevated to authority to issue commands (legal authority). Weber postulated the rules and regulations of a bureaucracy serve to insulate its members against the possibility of personal favoritism.

Weber Believes All Bureaucracies Have Certain Characteristics

a. A well defined hierarchy. All positions within a bureaucracy are structured in a way permitting the higher positions to supervise and control the lower positions. This provides a clear chain of command facilitating control and order throughout the organization.

b. Division of labor and specialization. All responsibilities in an organization are rationalized to the point where each employee will have the necessary expertise to master a particular task. This necessitates granting each employee the requisite authority to complete all such tasks.

c. Rules and regulations. All organizational activities should be rationalized to the point where standard operating procedures are developed to provide certainty and facilitate coordination.

d. Impersonal relationships between managers and employees. Weber believes it is necessary for managers to maintain an impersonal relationship with the employees because of the need to have a rational decision making process rather than one influenced by favoritism and personal prejudice. This organizational atmosphere would also facilitate rational evaluation of employee outcomes where personal prejudice would not be a dominant consideration.

e. Competence. Competence should be the basis for all decisions made in hiring, job assignments, and promotions. This would eliminate personal bias and the significance of knowing someone in central personnel decisions. This fosters ability and merit as the primary characteristics of a bureaucratic organization.

f. Records. Weber feels it is absolutely essential for a bureaucracy to maintain complete files regarding all its activities. This advances an accurate organizational memory where accurate and complete documents will be available concerning all bureaucratic actions and determinations.

Webers bureaucratic principles have been widely adopted throughout the world. Yet, there are many critics.

7. Discuss Frederick W. Taylors contributions to organizational theory.

Taylor has been termed the father of scientific management. As the name implies, it was a scientific approach to managerial decision making. The name was intended to contrast his approach with the unscientific approaches that characterized traditional management practices at the time. Taylors major techniques included time and motion studies whereby the work task was divided into its constituent elements or motions and eliminating wasted motions so that the work would be done in the one best way as well as timing the remaining motions in order to arrive at an expected rate of production.

Taylor also pushed strongly for standardization in the design and use of tools. Tools and procedures were standardized in accordance with what designs were most effective in a given context. Taylor also advocated a worker be assigned a given quantity of work each day based on the results of time study. This was forerunner of modern day goal-setting.

Taylor claimed the primary motivation of an employee was to earn money. Therefore, the way to get an employee to work harder was to pay by the piece. This system, known as the piece rate system, was intended to provide individual employee productivity incentives.

8. What was the Hawthorne study and why was it important?

The Hawthorne Experiments consist of two studies conducted at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company in Chicago from 14 to 1. The studys particular focus is on lighting and attempts to operationalize many of the principles of scientific management.

The initial study in 14 was conducted by a group of engineers seeking to determine the relationship of lighting levels to worker productivity. The study was done in connection with the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences.

The results of the studys findings are extremely interesting since worker productivity increases as the lighting levels decrease until the employees are unable to see what they are doing after which performance naturally declines.

Beginning in 17 a second group of experiments commenced with a group of five women in the bank wiring room. During the course of the experiment, the women are supervised by the experimenters conducting the study. Additionally the workers in the experimental group are given special privileges including the right to leave their workstation without permission, rest periods, free lunches and variations in pay levels and workdays. As with the first set of experiments, the second group of experiments result in significantly increased rates of productivity.

In the second experimental study in 18 the Harvard researchers, F. J. Roethlisberger, Professor of Human Relations, and Elton Mayo, a Professor of the Industrial Research Department, became associated with it. After extensive research, the results were not published until 1, they conclude the primary determinant of the increase in productivity is the change in the supervisory arrangement rather than the changes in lighting or other associated worker benefits. Since the experimenters became the primary supervisors of the employees, the intense interest they displayed for the workers was the basis for the increased motivation and resulting productivity.

Essentially the experimenters became a part of the study and influenced its outcome. This is the origin of the term Hawthorne Effect describing the special attention researchers give to a studys subjects and the impact it has on its findings. While the result of the Hawthorne studies failed to answer the specific question of the relation between illumination and worker productivity, the study did create a strong theoretical foundation for the human relations view of management.

. Discuss Chester Barnards contributions to organizational theory.

Barnard led a highly successful management career rising to the position of the President of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. He was also very active professionally including acting as the head of the Rockefeller Foundation. After giving a series of lectures on management, Barnard published his only book, The Functions of the Executive, in 18.

Basically, Barnard feels organizations are communication systems. He feels it is particularly important for managers to develop a sense of common purpose where a willingness to cooperate is strongly encouraged. He is credited with developing the acceptance theory of management emphasizing the willingness of people to accept those having authority to act. He feels the managers ability to exercise authority is strongly determined by the employees zone of indifference where orders are accepted without undue question.

Contrary to Weber beliefs that communication flows from the top of the organization to the bottom, Barnard feels organizational communication flows from the bottom to the top. He states there are four factors affecting the willingness of employees to accept authority

1. The employees must understand the communication.

. The employees accept the communication as being consistent with the organizations purposes.

. The employees feel their actions will be consistent with the needs and desires of the other employees.

4. The employees feel they are mentally and physically carry out the order from the higher authority.

Barnard also feels informal organizations within formal organizations perform necessary and vital communication functions for the overall organization. This is consistent with his belief that the executives main organizational function is acting as a channel of communication and maintaining the organization in operation.

Barnards sympathy for and understanding of employee needs in the dynamics of the organizational communication process positions him as a bridge to the behavioral school of management many of whose early members were his contemporaries.

10. Who was Mary Parker Follet and why was she important to organizational theory?

One of the earliest pioneers in the behavioral movement was Mary Parker Follet. Follet received an education in political science and pursued a professional career as a social worker where she became absorbed in work place related issues. She strongly believes in the inherent problem solving ability of people working in groups. Rather than assuming classical managements strongly hierarchical position of power in organizations, Follet asserts power should be cooperatively shared for the purpose of resolving conflict.

She is best known for her integration method of conflict resolution as opposed to the three choices she sites of domination, compromise or voluntary submission by one side over another. If, for example, an individual is sitting in a library on a warm spring day near an open window and a second person decides to share the table but wishes to close the window to avoid the draft, we have the basis of a conflict. Now one person could try and dominate the other and force the window to either be open or closed leaving the other person unhappy. A second alternative is for one person to simply submit to the wishes of the other, but be very unhappy. The third alternative is to compromise and close the window half way which will not satisfy either person.

Follet states the best way to handle this situation is to resolve the issue jointly through creative conflict resolution where, in our example, the newcomer may voluntarily agree to sit in another part of the library adjusting the window according to his/her preference. In this case, both parties to the conflict are happy as the issue has been resolved according to their own desires. Creative conflict resolution involves cooperatively working with others to devise inventive new ideas often providing strong interpersonal benefits.

11. Discuss Herbert Simons contributions to organizational theory.

The death knell of classical management theory was pronounced by Herbert Simon in his book Administrative Behavior A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administration Organization published n 147. Simon is particularly critical of the principles of administration including span of control and unity of command while saying all of the principles collectively were no more than proverbs. Simon found the principles of classical administration to be contradictory and vague.

Simons greatest management contribution is in decision making theory for which he received a Nobel prize. Simon states decision makers perform in an arena of bounded rationality and that the approach to decision making must be one of satisficing where satisfactory rather than optimum decisions are often reached. Satisficing successfully adapts to and is a realistic solution for the limited time and resources a manager has when considering alternatives in the decision making process.

1. Disccuss Abraham Maslows contributions to organizational theory.

Receiving his doctorate in psychology, Abraham Maslow was the first psychologist to develop a theory of motivation based upon a consideration of human needs. Maslows theory of human needs has three assumptions. First, human needs are never completely satisfied. Second, human behavior is purposeful and is motivated by need satisfaction. Third, needs can be classified according to a hierarchical structure of importance from the lowest to highest.

Maslow believes the needs hierarchy can be classified into five specific groups. To reach successive levels of the hierarchy required the satisfaction of the lower level needs

1. Physiological needs. Maslow groups all physical needs necessary for maintaining basic human well being into this category. These needs become acute and predominant if any or all of these needs are unsatisfied. However, consistent with Maslows theory of motivation, once a need is satisfied, such as thirst, it no longer is a motivator.

. Safety needs. These needs include the need for basic security, stability, protection, and freedom from fear. A normal state exists for an individual to have all of these needs generally satisfied. Otherwise, they become primary motivators.

. The belongingness and love needs. Once the physical and safety are satisfied and no longer are motivators, than the belongingness and love needs emerge as primary motivators. The individual will strive to establish meaningful relationships with significant others. Deprivation of the belongingness and love need will result in significant personality maladjustment.

4. The esteem needs. An individual must develop self confidence. In order to do this it is essential to the individual to have adequacy from achieving mastery and competence leading to the achievement of status, reputation, fame and glory. This achieves satisfaction of the self-esteem needs.

5. The need for self-actualization. Assuming all of the previous needs in the hierarchy are satisfied, a new discontent and restlessness will soon develop... A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write ... What a man can be, he must be.

Maslows hierarchy of needs theory helps the manager to visualize employee motivation. It helps in understanding the motivations and needs employees have and the requirement to satisfy basic needs in order to achieve higher level motivation.

1. Discuss Douglas McGregors contributions to organizational theory.

McGregor is the other major theorist associated with the Human Relations school of management. McGregor believes there are two basic kinds of managers.

One type of manager, Theory X, has a negative view of employees assuming they are lazy, untrustworthy and incapable of assuming responsibility while the other type of Manager, Theory Y, assumes employees are trustworthy and capable of assuming responsibility having high levels of motivation.

Theory X

1. Employees normally do not like to work and will try to avoid it.

. Since employees do not like working, they have to coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to motivate them to work.

. The average employee is lazy, shuns responsibility, is not ambitious, needs direction and principally desires security.

Theory Y

1. Work is as natural as play and therefore people desire to work.

. Employees are responsible for accomplishing their own work objectives.

. Comparable personal rewards are important for employee commitment to achieving work goals.

4. Under favorable conditions, the average employee will seek and accept responsibility.

5. Employees can be innovative in solving organizational problems.

6. Most organizations utilize only a small proportion of their employees abilities.

Mcgregors Theory X and Y is appealing to managers and dramatically demonstrate the divergence in management viewpoints toward employees. As such, Theory X and Y has been extremely helpful in promoting management understanding of supervisory styles and employee motivational assumptions.

14. Discuss Renesis Likerts contributions to organizational theory.

While being the director of the Institute of Human Relations at Ann Arbor, Michigan, Likert conducted a series of empirical studies on the differences between good and bad supervisors defined on the basis of high and low productivity. His research is based on employee interviews in separate departments in many different organizations where a scale of feelings is developed, the Likert scale, regarding employee attitudes toward their supervisors. This was correlated with their productivity.

Based on his research, Likert developed a four level managerial classification system. System 1 utilizes a supervisory system based primarily on fear and punishment. This results in an authoritarian supervisory system where employees are usually not consulted concerning major decisions.

In System organizations rewards are used to motivate employees with some freedom being allowed to comment on organizational decisions. However, managers have the primary decision making responsibility and employees in a System organization must act cautiously.

System organizations are more open to employee consultation regarding the managerial decision making process and overt managerial threats are avoided.

Likert states the System 4 organization is the most open and participative and is the ideal state managers should strive to achieve. This is termed the democratic model. Likert states the more an organizations management approximates the System 4 model, the more productive it will be.

15. Discuss Frederick Herzbergs contributions to the study of organizational behavior?

Additional empirical research was performed by Herzberg on 00 engineers and accountants. The research objective was to determine work situations where the subjects feel highly satisfied and motivated as opposed to those where the reverse is true. The research reveals that the work itself and achievement as well as recognition for the achievement are the primary motivators. Herzberg terms these factors satisfiers or motivators.

Factors having a negative motivation impact on the research subjects are the working conditions, salary, job security, supervisory methods and the general company management climate. Herzberg terms these factors hygiene factors or dissatisfiers.

From this research Herzberg developed the motivation-hygiene model of management. The model states that employee motivation is achieved with challenging enjoyable work where achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are encouraged and recognized. The environmental or hygiene factors, such as poor lighting, ventilation, poor working conditions, low salaries, and poor supervisory relations, serve as dissatisfiers.

The difference between motivators and hygiene factors is that motivators cause an employee to develop his/her own internal motivations, whereas hygiene factors can make an employee unhappy and dissatisfied, but cannot motivate him/her. The job itself is the motivator.

16. Discuss David C. McLelland contributions to organization theory.

He performed research on motivation patterns. In the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) where an individual writes a descriptive analysis of their individual reactions from unstructured pictures. McClelland determines the motivational state of the subjects from these descriptions.

Based upon this research, McClelland developed an achievement motivation theory consisting of four sets of needs achievement, affiliation, competence and power. Achievement motivation is a need people have to succeed through overcoming challenges. The affiliation motivation is similar to Maslows belongingness and love need where people relate to others on a social basis. The competence need is the desire to accomplish a job well done, and the power motivation is the need to control others and make a difference in the outcome of a given situation.

McClelland believes people have strong needs. His achievement motivation theory is important for managers seeking understanding of employee motivational patterns.

17. Discuss W. Edwards Demings contributions to organizational theory.

Deming received his doctorate in physics from Yale and was invited by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers to visit Japan in 150. In addition to urging the Japanese to use sampling methods to test for quality control, he also taught them the best way to lowered production costs was improved quality. Dr. Deming is concerned with increased organizational productivity by applying statistical quality controls as well as improving organizational communication

Although well known in Japan, Deming was ignored for years in the U.S.; however, this began to change after he was featured on an American TV show dealing with the reasons why the Japanese competition was threatening American business. He soon became sought after by American corporations coping with the mounting international competitive threat.

Demings Fourteen Management Points

1 Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive, to stay in business, and to provide jobs.

Adopt a new philosophy. We are in a new economic age, created by Japan. We can no longer live with commonly accepted styles of American management, nor with commonly accepted levels of delays, mistakes, or defective products.

Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place.

4 End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost.

5 Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs.

6 Institute training on the job.

7 Institute supervision the aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul, as well as supervision of production workers.

8 Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company.

Break down the barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team to foresee problems of production and use that may be encountered with the product or service.

10 Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force which ask for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships. The bulk of the causes of low productivity belong to the system, and thus lie beyond the power of the work force.

11 Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas for the day. Substitute aids and helpful supervision.

1 Remove the barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. Remove the barriers that rob people in management and engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. This means abolishment of the annual rating, or merit rating, and management by objective.

1 Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining.

14 Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.

18. Discuss the evolution of management theory.

The evolution of management thought has followed societal trends of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The nineteenth century works of Charles Babbage and Robert Owen were concerned with the early factory system as well making social progress. The classical school and bureaucratic school of the early twentieth century were the first efforts to generate a comprehensive theory of management. This school included Max Weber and Henri Fayol. Fayol was the father of the administrative management school. He had a profound affect on much of administrative theory during the early part of the twentieth century.

Frederick Taylor, the engineer, established the scientific method of management.

The behavioral school made a profound influence on management theory. It is a revolutionary period of management theory. It includes the Nobel prize winning critic of the early proverbs of administration, Herbert Simon, as well as the landmark Hawthorne Experiment ushering in the human relations branch of the bureaucratic method. The behavioral school also includes the first female organizational theorist, Mary Parker Follet. A major result of the behavioral school is the demise and repudiation of the classical school of management.

The human relations school of management is extremely important in dealing with the concept of employee motivation. Herbert Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs theory while Douglas McGregor developed Theory X and Y. The behavioral research school applies much of the needs theory developed by Maslow in actual organizational settings.

The contemporary management school brings a more interdisciplinary approach to the field of management. The very important writings of W. Edwards Deming in the area of productivity improvement and those of Peter Drucker on MBO and management innovation have a major impact on the way todays organizations are managed. The integrative methodologies of the systems approach and contingency theory give managers the latitude they need to integrate the research of the many management schools.

Finally, the quality school of management is extremely important in presenting a comparative management model. W. Edwards Deming is the pre-eminent theorist in this school. It has also become known as Total Quality Management (TQM).

0. Organizational theory is extremely interdisciplinary. What are the foundations for the discipline?

There are three basic building blocks for organizational theory. They are anthropology, sociology, and psychology.

1. Discuss the significance of reliability and validity in organizational theory research.

Reliability is the accuracy of measurement and consistency of results. Validity is whether the study really demonstrates what it is supposed to demonstrate. Internal validity assures that there are no plausible alternative explanations other than those reported (threats of internal validity).

Additionally, there are types of validity researchers must be concerned with in understanding research in organizational behavior

Content - how well the measure captures the behavior of interest.

Predictive - an objective statistical relationship between what is being predicted (criterion) and what is being used to predict it (predictor).

Construct - the degree to which observable characteristics converge with similar concepts or discriminate between dissimilar concepts.

. Because people are confronted by constant stimuli, they are unable to attend to them all. Therefore, they select only a small number at any given time. This is accomplished through the principles of perceptual selectivity. What are the various external attention factors that affect perceptual selectivity.

a. Intensity - the more intense the stimulus, the more likely it is to be perceived.

b. Size - the larger, the object, the more likely it is to be perceived.

c. Contrast - external stimuli which stand out or which are not what people are expecting will receive more attention.

d. Repetition - repeated external stimuli are more attention-getting than a single stimulus.

e. Motion - more attention will be paid to moving objects than to stationery ones.

f. Novelty and Familiarity - new objects in a familiar setting or familiar objects in a new setting are attention getting.

4. Discuss the role of heredity in determining personality.

The exact role that heredity plays in personality is inconclusive. However, research on identical twins (the Jim twins) raised apart has shown some support for this perspective. Despite a continuing debate on heredity versus environment, genetics experts and educational psychologists generally argue that intelligence is to some degree inherited.

5. What did the Milgram study demonstrate about the role that the situation plays in the human personality?

Subjects from a variety of occupations administered increasing levels of shock to a fellow learner. The subjects were exposed to the accomplices vocal responses (moans, screams, pleas, etc.) and were encouraged by the experimenter to continue the experiment. Contrary to expert opinion, almost two-thirds of the subjects went ahead and administered what they thought was a very dangerous or even fatal amount of voltage. The results of the experiment suggested that people tend to obey those in authority positions, even though their behavior goes against their personality or better judgment.

6. What are successful organizational socialization strategies?

Provide a challenging first job.

Provide relevant training.

Provide timely and consistent feedback

Select a good supervisor to be in charge of socialization.

Design a relaxed orientation program.

Place new recruits in work groups with high morale.

7. Discuss attitudes as a complex cognitive process.

They tend to persist unless something is done to change them. They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. They are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and beliefs.

8. Discuss the role attitudes play in organizational behavior in terms of help people adapt to their work environment.

They help employees adjust tot heir environments and are a basis for future behaviors. They help employees defend their self images and justify actions.

They provide a basis for expressing central values.

They help supply standards that allow people to organize and explain the world around them.

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. Discuss how it is possible to change employee attitudes.

Provide new information.

Use fear

Resolve discrepancies between attitudes and behavior

Use influence from friends or peers.

Employ co-optation whereby disgruntled employees are made a part of the process and given credit for it.

0. Discuss the importance of job satisfaction in achieving productivity.

Most research evidence indicates that there is no large positive relationship between satisfaction and productivity; however, if people are rewarded equitably, they will be more satisfied and they may strive for a greater performance effort.

1. Discuss the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism.

There is an inverse relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. People who believe that their work is important tend to have lower absenteeism then those who dont. It is important to remember, however, that high job satisfaction will not necessarily result in low absenteeism, but low job satisfaction is likely to bring about high absenteeism.

. Discuss how Victor Vrooms Expectancy Theory depicts a process of cognitive variables which reflect individual differences in motivation. What are the variables in his the Expectancy Theory.

Valence - the strength of an individuals preference for a particular outcome.

Instrumentality - the degree to which a first level outcome will lead to a desired second level outcome.

Expectancy - the probability that a particular effort will lead to a particular first level outcome.

The model helps management understand workers motivation, but does not provide specific solutions to motivational problems.

. Discuss how equity theory argues that a major input into job performance and satisfaction is the degree of equity or inequity that people perceive in their work situation.

Inequity occurs when a person perceives that the ratio of his/her outcomes to inputs are unequal. Inputs and outcomes are based on perception. Motivation under this perspective can be defined by the drive to restore equity. This may be done in several ways

Alter the inputs or outcomes

Cognitively distorts the inputs or outcomes.

Leave the field

Act on the other

Change the other

Feelings of inequity can occur not only when a person feels cheated, but also in the case of overreward. There has been research support for the theory.

4. Compare and contrast job enlargement and job enrichment.

Job enlargement is termed horizontal job loading. It makes the job less specialized by adding more functions to it, but without increased responsibility for the worker. Job enrichment is a direct outgrowth of Frederick Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory of motivation. In particular, job enrichment is concerned with designing jobs that include greater variety of work content, require higher levels of skill, give workers more autonomy and provide feedback.

Job enrichment vertically loads the job, which means that there are not necessarily more tasks to perform, but more responsibility for the overall job.

5. Explain the quality of work life (QWL) approach to job design.

QWL is a more general approach to job design. It is primarily concerned with the impact of work and organizational climate on people, and how this in turn influences organizational effectiveness. Design efforts are focused on the human-technology-organization interface. Employee participation in problem solving and decision making is central to this approach.

6. Explain the sociotechnical approach to job design.

This approach is grounded in systems theory. It is concerned with the harmony between personal, social and technological functioning. This approach generally involves the redesign of technological work processes and the formation of autonomous, self-regulating work groups.

7. Discuss the interrelationship of goal setting with human resource management.

Effective goal setting includes the following elements

specific goals are more effective than vague, general or do your best goals.

difficult, challenging goals tend to be more effective than relatively easy, mundane goals. Owned and accepted goals arrived at through participation are preferred to assigned goals. Objective, timely feedback about progress toward goals is preferable to no feedback.

8. What are the four major techniques of administering reinforcement?

Fixed-ratio schedules - reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses. This schedule tends to produce a high response rate that is vigorous and steady.

Fixed-interval schedules - reinforcement is given after a specified time or period, measured from the last reinforced response. Under a fixed-interval schedule there is an uneven pattern that varies from a slow response immediately following reinforcement to a vigorous response immediately preceding reinforcement.

Variable-ratio schedules - reinforcement is given after a randomly varied number of responses. Each response has an equal chance of being reinforced regardless of the number of responses that have preceded it.

Variable-interval schedules - reinforcement is given after a randomly distributed length of time.

44. Discuss the trait theory of leadership.

The Great Man theory says that a person is born either with or without the necessary traits for leadership. A more recent and realistic approach accepts the fact that leadership traits are not completely inborn, but can be acquired through learning. The results of a search for universal traits are disappointing, and the only consistent result was that leaders are generally brighter than their followers, but not too much so.

45. Discuss Fiedlers Contingency Theory of Leadership.

His contingency model contained the relationship between leadership style (human relations or task-direct) as measured by the Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale, and the favorableness of the situation (leader-member relations, degree of task structure, and position power).

Situations are favorable for the leader when all three situational dimensions are high. When the dimensions are low, the situation is unfavorable.

Under highly favorable or unfavorable situations, task directed leaders are more effective. In situations of moderate favorableness, by far the most common situation, human relations leaders are more effective.

6. What are the major categories of organizational communication.

Management Information Systems - generally computerized systems which integrate networks of information that support management decision making, strategic planning, customer service activities, and actual communication.

Telecommunication Technology - involves the transmission of information within and between organizations using computer, telephone, and television technologies, wireless systems of portable phone, and wired systems of fiber optic linkages. Existing telecommunications applications include telephone caller ID, electronic mail, electronic data interchange (EDI), voice messaging, and electronic bulletin boards.

Nonverbal - nonword human responses, such as body language, time, space, paralanguage, environmental context, etc., that convey meaning.

What are some methods of promoting effective upward communication and improving managers listening habits?

Grievance procedure - allow employees to make upward appeals and protect individuals from arbitrary action by their direct supervisor.

Open Door policy - allows subordinates to interact with their supervisor when needed or wanted.

Counseling, attitude questionnaires, and exit interviews - these contribute valuable upward information for management to correct or prevent problems.

Participative techniques - either informal or formal participation programs generally result in more satisfied employees and, occasionally, better performers.

Ombudsperson - encourages subordinate-initiated communication, especially in large, depersonalized organizations.

67. What are some examples of formal programs of employee participation in organizations?

The Scanlon Plan is a pioneering form of labor-management cooperation.

Suggestion plans or boxes represent another traditional participation program.

Quality circles, a technique widely used in Japan, are small groups of volunteers from the same work area who collectively solve work-related problems.

Self-managed work groups have become very popular in the most innovative firms. These groups run themselves and have proved to be very productive in firms such as General Mills.

68. What are some criticisms of the Webers bureaucratic model?

Specialization - creates conflict between specialized units.Hierarchy - individual initiative and participation are often blocked. Upward communication and horizontal communication are impeded.

Rules - rules often become ends in themselves. Rules are used for punitive control from above.

Impersonal characteristics - are concerned with human problems (both employees an customers) associated wit bureaucratic structures.

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Analysis of Wal-Mart’s strategy

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1. Why did Mexico make suck a good proving ground for Wal-Mart’s foreign expansion strategy?


Considering the environment of politic and economic of Mexican in 10s, it provided Wal-Mart good opportunity to expand its business. There are main three factors as follows

l Firstly, when Wal-Mart considering expanding global market, U.S.A. at the same time was entering negotiations with Mexico and Canada about the North American Free Trade Agreement. This spurred the interests of Wal-Mart to develop its business in neighbor’s market.

l Secondly, the leader of Mexico, Carlos Salinas, who was a Harvard-trained economist, advocated free market reforms and privatized those State-owned enterprises in Mexican. This created nicer investment environment to Wal-Mart.

l The tight monetary policy lowered inflation rate into the single digits in Mexican.

All of these would be bring good opportunities to Wal-Mart for its strategy to enter Mexican’s market.

l Firstly, the barriers to trade and investment between U.S.A and Mexican, which had already lowered by Salinas, would fall much further under the NAFTA proposal.

l Second, tariffs on goods imported from the United States had come down from 100 percent in the mid-180s to a maximum of 0 percent by the early 10s, and under NAFTA many of these would fall to zero.

l The tight monetary policy drove Mexican’s economy growth rate at 4 to 5 percent per year by the early 10s; disposable income of Mexican people had increased by 70 percent since Salinas took office. And more than two third of people would be classified as middle class, which means people have enough purchasing power.

With an eye to big potential opportunities in Mexico market, Wal-Mart carried its points by taking many right steps. Such as

l Concentrated in three main urban areas Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey. The people there are richer and with much stronger purchasing power for consuming, easily accepted the consuming way in the supermarket.

l Deeply investigated in Mexican market, and quickly knew that the company’s competitive advantage is the combination of culture and supporting information and logistics systems, and the weakness is knew nothing about the culture and business system in this new market. Comparing all investing possibilities, then Wal-Mart decided the best way to do is taking the form of joint venture by 50 to 50.

l Chosen the good partner for the joint venture in Mexico. Cifra, the largest one in Mexico, has rich experience in retail market and has well done in dealing with supermarket business for several years. Concerning the business dimension and benefits, Cifra operated 10 discount and grocery stores and generated sales about $. billion. The good condition of Cifra can minimum the investment risk of Wal-Mart.

l The two founders of Wal-Mart and Cifra have a good relation and reached a common agreement with regard to the NAFTA which opened up opportunities for both sides in business cooperation in Mexico.

Good relation of two founders

.What is the source of Wal-Mart’s competitive advantage? What barriers did Wal-Mart have to overcome in transferring its competencies to Mexico?


l Advantage

1) First-class management team, that pursued a number of innovative operating strategies that backed up the company’s commitment to deliver a large selection of high-value merchandise at a low cost to consumers.

) Located in small Southern towns when it’s early period that had no other major retail presence. Wal-Mart did not have to face competition from other discounters.

) Advanced distribution system. Pioneered the development of a hub-and-spoke-based distribution system, where central distribution warehouses were strategically located to serve clusters of stores.

4) IT system. Wal-Mart has one of the first to utilize computer based information systems to track in-store sales and transmit this information to suppliers.

5) Dynamic and egalitarian culture. Wal-Mart grants major decision-making authority or store managers, department managers and individual employees(associates). Treating employees well, demanding commitment and excellent performance from them. profit-sharing plan and stock ownership plan

6) Has garnered significant leverage with its suppliers, and use this leverage to demand lower prices from its suppliers.(every day low prices)

l Barriers

1) Culture and system are difficult to transfer to franchisees

) Distribution and transportation cost too much

) Mexican retail market is very fragmented and dispersed

4) Government bureaucrats

5) NAFTA is not been implemented, high tariffs

6) Select a non-perfect merchandise

. How did Wal-Mart intend to create value in the Mexican market?


Wal-Mart believes that its unique culture, format, and operating systems are its advantage for international expansion. At that time, the United States, Mexico and Canada were talking about the foundation of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This spurred Wal-Mart’s interests in Mexico. Historically, there are a lot of cross border trade and investment between U.S.A and Mexico. On the other hand, there are potential customers in Mexico, about 0 million middle class. The following is the steps of Wal-Mart entered into Mexico market

l Enter a 50/50 joint venture with Cifra. After a rapid grow in U.S.A., Wal-Mart has recognized that its U.S. growth prospects are ultimately limited by market saturation, its growth rate in U.S. would inevitably slow. This would slow stock price appreciation for Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart realized that it knew little about the culture and business systems of Mexico, so the company decided to form a joint venture with Cifra.

l 11 it opened the first Sam’s Club store in Mexico City.

l 1 Wal-Mart established six more Sam’s Clubs in Mexico

l 1 Wal-Mart began to open stores under the Wal-Mart name.

4. Despite some early setbacks, Wal-Mart has apparently been successful in Mexico. In contrast, some other U.S. retailers pulled out of the country in the aftermath of the December 14 peso crisis. What do you think distinguishes Wal-Mart from these companies?


l Wal-Mart has the integrated and effective foreign growth strategy

1) Entering a joint venture with a Mexincan company, Cooperate with Cifra in Mexico.

After debating a number of option for expansion, it chose to enter a 50/50 joint venture with Cifra, because it know little about the culture and business systems of Mexico.

During the December 14 peso crisis

) Making strong improvements in its operating efficiency.

Because of the low local labor costs, it can reduce its inventory and logistic costs

) Start to source far more goods from Mexico

Because many of its suppliers had located in Mexico to take advantage of lower production costs and NAFTA.

4) Improve the mix of product offerings at its Mexican stores.

Offer more products sold well in place of those sold bad

5) Use its purchase volume to gain leverage with suppliers, bargaining down prices in return for large purchase volumes

6) Decide to take advantage of the economic slump to build its market share.

l Wal-Mart uses its competitive advantage to develop successful.

1) Hub-and-spoke-based distribution system

This system allowed Wal-Mart to rapidly replenish stock in its stores, while keeping the amount of stores space needed for inventory to a minimum, can cut down inventory and logistics costs.

) Computer-based information systems

It can be used to determine pricing and stocking strategy and to better manage inventories.

) Dynamic and egalitarian culture and control system

By such means, Wal-Mart creates incentives for associates and managers to give their best for the company.

Wal-Mart always keep the point �every day low prices” and pass more prices on to consumers, enabling the company to gain market share and remain profitable. So compared with other companies, Wal-Mart use the long-time, flexible and successive foreign growth strategy to develop the market successfully.

5.If Wal-Mart can succeed in Mexico, it can probably succeed in most countries. Discuss this statement. Is it correct?

If Wal-Mart can succeed in Mexico, it can probably succeed in most countries. Discuss this statement. Is it correct?

Firstly before answering this question, we should consider what the main things are for one international company leading for success.

There are number reasons why the corporation succeeded in the expansion. The cores are the two main elements coming from the external and internal sides

l External side

The environment represents the set of uncontrollable forces to which the firm must adapt its marketing mix.

1) Economic environment

International expansion is affected by the economic environment in two respects by the global economy and secondly by the individual economies of the targeted countries

A. Government policy and regulation; the change of government

a. The balance of payments of one country measures the flow of the transaction between residents of that country and the residents of the rest of the world over a period of time

b. the tariff and quotas and protectionism are the restrictions to protect local market

c. Stable economic environment and continuous economic growth is the basic reason for some company looking for where is right place for the international expansion.

d. The government economy policy of trade and investment, monetary policy

e. living and consumption standard

B. International institutions and agreement

The trend to free market will help the company to fulfill the international strategy, otherwise it will become the big barrier. The segment market defined is very important for one company strategy expansion

) Political environment

Political conflict may be lead to instability, but it may or may not affect business operations.

) Social Cultural environment the language and habits are the typical things, which the international expansion is facing. This will contribute to the formats of distribution system and purchase chain.

4) The legal environment

Legal system does vary from country to country in terms of their complexity, interpretation and application and the global marketer must be aware of how the individual legal systems could affect the company’s business practice.

The international expansion has meant that firms need to plan on a global scale to remain competitive and successful

l Internal side

1) Mission for management

Firms internal environment and reflect the constraints which are imposed by the company on the marketing strategy decisions

) The structure of management

) Operation format

If the format can be connected well with the target market,

How to change your present format to complying with the requirement of potential markets

So we can not use yes or no to answer the question

External and internal environment will determine its potential opportunities and chances to be successful As for any strategy of one company should not be fixed to use for all different environments. If the international expansion strategy is established, how to take actions and how to establish the project, it should be precise even different, which should be flexibly used in real practice.

So when cannot say if you succeed in one country which will typical meant successful in other countries.

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Tuesday, March 26, 2013


If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Holiday. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Holiday paper right on time.

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Full-time Students Vs. Part -time Students Full-time vs. Part-time Students There are many similarities and differences between full and part-time students. Each student is trying for the goal of educating themselves to become more successful in life. As students begin their education there is a sense ...

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Disjunctive reaction time as it relates to complexity level Abstract The reaction time for subject with increase complexity is the focus of this study. The ten respondents were randomly selected on the campus of University Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Ten subjects reaction time was evaluated with a computer ...

Part-time work Full-time rewards

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Part-time work Full-time rewards Cori Brouse ENL111 10 October 000 Part-time work Full-time rewards When you think about someone with a part-time job, you probably think the person is very lucky to have the job. Of course, you probably have one too and have the viewpoint of a younger person still ...

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The dramatic monologues of Browning and Tennyson capture the mood and personality of the characters. One can imagine the speakers repeating their points of view time after time. Do you agree?

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Please note that this sample paper on Holiday is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Holiday, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Holiday will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Thursday, March 7, 2013


If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on irony. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality irony paper right on time.

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William Golding, the author of Lord of the Flies, used irony to tell his story of a group of young British boys stranded on a deserted island. The readers can clearly spot the irony in the dialogue and Ralph, one of the main character, is also aware of the irony in his situation. The irony in the novel forces the readers to step aside and think about the hidden meanings the author is trying to express.

The first example of irony occurred in chapter two. Jack says to the group of young, impressionable boys that Weíve got to have rules and obey them. After all, weíre not savages.(Golding )However, in the following chapters Jack is the leader of the tribe and encourages the boys to forget civilization and act upon their primitive instincts. They ignore the laws that they all have agreed to follow while on the island and commit heinous crimes against humanity, such as torture against both humans and animals, and murder. They no longer act like English schoolboys who are the best at everything, but like savages.

Relatively early on in the novel Ralph comes to terms with his situation. He realizes that much of oneís life is spent just keeping out of danger and staying alive. After understanding the complex, yet realistic, view of life he remembers his first impression of the island and how he thought they would have fun on the island, like living in one of his books. Now he

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realized what life on the island would really be like.

There is irony in Piggyí s name. The boys hunt, kill and eat pigs on the island. Not only do they kill the pigs, they enjoy it tremendously. Piggyí s name suggests that he will be a victim of the beast. Not the beast the boys on the island fear, but the beast within each of them. The author is saying through Piggy that because they kill and eat the pigs they become the beast.

Ralph prays to the adult world to send them something grownup, a sign or something. His prayer is answered by a dead parachuter, a casualty of war from the fighting going on in civilized society. The dead man is powerless to help the boys. He actually causes more problems. He is mistaken for the beast and causes more fear in the boys and drives them closer to becoming savages.

Piggy often says that they act like a crowd of kids. He says to Ralph that grownups know things. They ainít afraid of the dark. Theyíd meet and have tea and discuss. Then things Ïud be all right. This is perhaps the best example of irony in the novel. It is because the adults could not get together and discuss their problems that they were stranded on the island in the first place. If they had been able to meet and discuss they boys would have never fleed their school and would have never been shot down, therefore avoiding ever being on the island.

William Golding used irony in Lord of the Flies as a way to make the readers step back and think about what he wrote. If he had not wrote the story with ironic twists and hidden meanings many people would miss the meaning of the book. The readers would be able to finish the novel without thinking about the issues that you are meant to ponder after reading Lord of the Flies, such as evil, spirituality, society, man versus the unknown, man versus himself and many other important themes in the book.

Please note that this sample paper on irony is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on irony, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on irony will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Thursday, February 7, 2013

handmaid's tale

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on handmaid's tale. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality handmaid's tale paper right on time.

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Dystopian literature was the key element to Margaret Atwood’s novel ‘The Handmaids Tale’. The novel itself is a fictive masterpiece in which an imaginary place called ‘Gilead’ in the United States was considered as a ‘nightmare world’.

Atwood defines the Commander in the novel in an idiosyncratic way so that he is significant in the text. The presentation of him gives the sense of ideology of why Gilead was lead to be an unpleasant surrounding and how women were oppressed just to control the declining birth rate caused by the environmental pollution. Commander’s importance is the main theme to explore and how Margaret Atwood presents him for the purpose in ‘The Handmaids Tale’.

The commander himself lacks bland description when Offred first mentions him. This apparently shows that normal men in power can be a threat if this power is not controlled. He has a powerful authority figure in the household ‘but to refuse him could be worse. There’s no doubt about who hold’s the real power’. If Offred doesn’t meet him in the study like he asked, there will be dire consequences; she might be declared as ‘Unwoman’ and sent off to the colonies. She has to obey all his commands just to be on the safe end.

The adjective Atwood uses to describe him was his ‘grey’ hair allowing the reader to know he is of old age. He is presented as an old-fashioned gentleman on his own territory since he is the eldest and has the male power. This image does begin to break down during the novel as Atwood reveals that he was the founder of the Gilead system ‘the problem wasnt only with the women, he says. The main problem was with the men. There was nothing for them anymore’. That was his explanation for all the distress that women suffered and for everything they had lost. He is the immediate agent for Offreds oppression and he holds the responsibility for the totalitarian society. This feature is a necessary convention of dystopian literature as the regime controls everything from liberty to rights.

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His strong image soon loosens when Offred meets him in his study and her first impression of him was almost likeable. He was not cruel and he seemed to be a prisoner of Gilead himself just like the women. He wanted genuine companionship and human contact. His acts of rebellion portray this attempt as he asked Offred for a meaningful kiss ‘Not like that’ ‘As if you meant it’. He behaves in a shy, courtly fashion around Offred, which doesn’t resemble the male power figure. He shows his tender side and his emotions unfold. He explains he’s wistful disappointed at the coldness of Offreds kiss showing his desperation for something worthwhile. It’s a parody of a conventional affair. This reveals that Gilead itself is fundamentally flawed and even those who are supposed to benefit are frustrated by it.

Atwood signifies the commander in specific way in contrast to Offred’s life. His affair with Offred is similar to Offred’s affair with Luke before they got married. Offreds past is becoming visible again in an unusual form and circumstance. Even though he is having an affair with Offred he does not understand Offreds problems and how she is coping with the rules and regulations of the regime, which he created. He laughs at Offreds admission that Handmaids put butter on their hands ‘that’s very clever. Butter. He laughed’. Their ingenuity pleases him and doesn’t realise that their lives are under constant scrutiny. He doesn’t emphasise their humiliation by being treated as ‘prize pigs’ and only being considered for their reproductive organs. Only they matter, the rest of the body is a ‘cloud’ transparent, barely visible. This can suggest that the commander is selfish, inconsiderate and self-interested since he has no true sympathy or affinity for Offred. He is trapped in traditional patriarchal assumptions by allowing exploitation of women despite his apparent gallantry towards Offred. He only wants to use her for his pleasure, which he lost himself.

Atwood reinforces him in an adequate way so that he compartmentalises his life. His marriage to Serena Joy is one section that is incomplete because they lack kinship of children. He still works as an enforcer of the rules of the totalitarian state. His role towards the Handmaids are on another basis and he manages to keep all his different sectors distinct from one another and treats them separately even thought they are linked to one another.

Atwood reveals the commander’s acts of kindness by allocating Offred with hand lotion and magazines ‘I have a present for you’ ‘it was a magazine, a women’s magazine’ shows Atwood’s intention to imply that Gilead is the result of both men and women’s decision. His desire at Jezebels, a brothel shows his hypocrisy and his actions were against the religious beliefs. The Gilead he established, the rules he formed he did not accompany showing his contumacy.

In conclusion Margaret Atwood presents the Commander in a precise way mainly showing him being in an unpleasant situation and there is no escapism. His own plan, the birth of Gilead restricts him from the luxuries of a woman that would please his desires hence that is impossible to overcome. His power, authority and high status are meaningless because of him being depressed, lacking friendship and feeling lonely. He posses an ethical problem for women and for himself and his unhappiness leads to him being a prisoner of Gilead’s structure as anyone else. Gilead subjugates both men and women but the Commander has no true understanding of the plight of women and how they are tyrannized. Therefore Margaret illustrates the Commander as a powerful male hence weak and loveless in his own unfortunate circumstances.


Please note that this sample paper on handmaid's tale is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on handmaid's tale, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on handmaid's tale will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Hypnotic Melody in "Echo"

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Known to early-0th century historians as a prominent Victorian feminist, Christina Rossetti actually lived a quiet, conservative life that was greatly affected by her staunch adherence to the doctrines of the Evangelical branch of the Church of England. Two separate engagements to be married were broken due to religious differences. Rossetti was not able to overcome these disagreements with any potential spouse; she was never married and lived as a recluse for the last fifteen years of her life. Perhaps because of these obstacles in the path of her romantic life, a major theme demonstrated in Rossetti’s poems is the longing for true, lasting love. From an early age, she also suffered from several severe health problems, including a mysterious disease, which was diagnosed sometimes as angina and sometimes as tuberculosis. She was eventually to die of cancer at age 64. It is possible to speculate that because of her health problems, Rossetti constantly felt that her death was impending. This would explain the preoccupation she seems to have had with death and its potentials; in fact, she wrote several poems from the standpoint of someone already passed into the realm of the dead. “Echo” draws on both familiar themes of death and lost love. The elements of style prevalent in the poem are invaluable in conveying the dreamlike tone of the poem.

The first stanza begins with an invitation to the lover to return at night, in the form of a reverie. The stanza begins explicitly, “Come to me in the silence of the night;” (1) and repeats the request “come” at the beginning of each of lines one to three, and line five. The immediate and clear entrance of repetition provides a commanding introduction to the poem’s melodic tone. This instance, however, is the sole occurrence of repetition in the poem until the idea of death is introduced in the second stanza.

Another element of style introduced in the first stanza and continued throughout the poem is the prominence of assonance. Although not featured as heavily in the first stanza as in the last two, the effect of alliteration is unquestionable and significant. Among the most noticeable instances of assonance are the repetition of the “o” sounds in “O memory, hope, love of finished years.” (6), and the interlinked “o”, “i”, and “e” sounds in “That opening, letting in, lets out no more” (1). These occurrences serve the crucial purpose of linking their respective words, allowing the poem to become a fluid, collective piece. The profound effect of assonance in the first stanza of “Echo” becomes clear when one considers the alternatives. If, for example, Rossetti had chosen close synonyms in the place of several key words, the feel of the poem would have been quite different. “O memory, hope, love of finished years.” (6) might become “O remembrance, faith, desire for finished years.” While the meanings of the individual words are extremely similar, the tones evoked by the two lines are completely different. The altered line is choppy and does not flow at all. The original, however, is an entirely different story; the linked vowels create a smooth, streamlined, and indeed dreamlike mood.

One more component adding to the melodial quality of the poem is the distinct form. There are three stanzas; each stanza is composed of a quatrain with alternating rhyming lines (in other words, pattern ABAB) followed by a couplet. Rossetti constructed this piece in iambic meter of alternating lengths. In general, each stanza follows a pattern of three lines of iambic pentameter followed by one line of iambic trimeter. A line of iambic dimeter follows the line of iambic trimeter, and each stanza is concluded with a final line of iambic pentameter.

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This pattern, however, is slightly varied in the second stanza. Instead of the pattern just discussed, both the second and sixth lines of the stanza (lines eight and twelve) contain an extra unstressed syllable, creating a feminine ending and departing from the overall masculine trend of the piece. Lines eight and twelve both introduce a rather somber aspect of the poem. Their reunion should have occurred in Paradise, says the speaker in line eight, implying that the two are destined for different afterlives. Not only are the lovers separated by their current situation, but apparently they will never be reunited, even in Heaven. Interestingly, Rossetti seemed to live her mortal life in such a way as to avoid this plight; extremely devout in her Anglicanism, she rejected two fianc�s because they were not “Christian” enough. The twelfth line creates a vivid and distressing image of one lover waiting inside the gates of Paradise, waiting for her loved one to enter; however, she can not exit to find him on earth. Both these lines illustrate the permanence of the lovers’ plights, and the departure from the overall iambic meter of the poem helps to accent this permanence.

The temporary modification of the meter is not the only change that occurs in the second stanza. A noticeable increase in the amount of repetition throughout the poem also begins in the seventh line. “Oh dream how sweet, too sweet, too bitter sweet,” (7) says the speaker; while the words of the first stanza are melodious and pleasant, this is the first indication that the “dream” of reuniting with her lover is impossible. The repetition of “sweet” alerts the reader to the poet’s hopelessness. While “sweet” carries positive connotations, “too sweet” holds a warning that something must be amiss; “too bitter sweet” provides an assessment of the dream that is definitely negative, although the reason is at this point unknown. It is difficult to miss the prominent use of repetition in the first line of the second stanza, and this use makes it also difficult to miss the change in attitude.

The repetition re-introduced here continues and gradually increases throughout the last part of the poem, ending with three lines entirely dominated by repetition. Rossetti writes “Pulse for pulse, breath for breath Speak low, lean low, As long ago, my love, how long ago” (16-18). The reiteration of “pulse”, “breath”, “low”, and “long ago” punctuates the lines; they seem to create a lasting image of the permanence of the lovers’ plight. The four phrases are repeated methodically, rhythmically, and utterly sadly. The repetition conveys an image of a person in a trance, whether it is the trance of sleep or that of death. While heartbroken by the turn of events that has befallen them, the speaker makes no effort to convey hope in the future. She knows that there is as little chance of reunion as she believes there is of changing the laws of Heaven and Hell.

Written in 1854, after her first broken engagement but before her second, Rossetti writes “Echo” in the form of a dream of a lost lover. Most notably, she makes use of a strict rhyme scheme, assonance, and iambic meter to create a lulling, melodic rhythm reminiscent of the persuasive dreams that are had every night, countless times across the world, by romantics dreaming that their former lover has returned. It is after the second stanza begins, however, that a heavy pattern of repetition becomes more obvious and the poem begins to take on a more sinister import. The reader recognizes that the speaker of the poem is not an average dreamer, but rather a departed woman longing for her former lover, who remains among the living. While the sounds of the alliteration and assonance that are prevalent throughout the poem contribute a sensual, dreamlike quality to the poem, the appearance of significant repetition in the second two stanzas punctuates and explicates the poem’s morose undertones.


“Christina Rossetti An Overview” http//

“The Dead Woman Talks Back Christina Rossetti’s Ironic Intonation of the Dead Fair Maiden” http// G.P. Landow.

“Love as an Influence on Christina Rossetti” http// From The Romantic Imagination, C. M. Bowra. December 18.

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Monday, February 4, 2013

George Orwell

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A Comparison between Orwells Concerns and methods of making his points with Swifts

A Comparison between Orwells concerns and methods of making his points with Swifts

Eric Arthur Blair, now more commonly known as George Orwell was born in India in 10, and his father was an official in the Indian Civil Service. Throughout Orwells childhood he felt a deep sense of isolation, a factor to later influence his writing. In 111 he was sent to a boarding school on the Sussex coast where he was distinguished by his poverty and intellectual brilliance.

He grew up a morose, eccentric boy and in 15, wrote of his miseries in an autobiographical essay, Such, Such Were The Joys.

Orwell won scholarships to Winchester and Eton. He chose Eton and stayed from 117 to 11, and during this time published his first writing in college periodicals. Despite being offered a scholarship to University, Orwell became an Imperial servant at Burma in 1, serving in a number of countries.Yet he had a desire to become a writer, and when he realized how much the Burmese were ruled by the British against their will, he felt increasingly ashamed of his role. He later recalled his experiences and reactions to Imperial rule in his novel, Burmese Days and in two autobiographical sketches, Shooting an Elephant and A Hanging.

In 17, Orwell retired his post and left Burma, choosing to live among the poor, outcast people of Europe. He resided for some time within the slums of England and France. These experiences were conveyed in, Down and Out in London and Paris where he voiced his concerns for those worst off in society.

Orwells politics as a socialist writer became progressively more anti-Communist and also patriotic. After his failing to enlist in World War II, due to grounds of ill health, Orwell joined the Home Guard and increased his journalistic output. He became the literary editor of the Tribune and as did Swift, contributed articles to many papers.

Orwell had a family life, and after the death of his first wife in 145, married Sonia Brownwell and moved to a Scottish Hebridean island also with his sister and adopted son. However, in 150 his health had gradually declined and Orwell died of tuberculosis a few days before hoping to visit Switzerland to improve his health.

Orwells first popular success Animal Farm was published in 145. It conveys political tyranny and its effects on a society. As the title suggests the novel is set on a farm, detailing the farm animals struggle with the farms manager to achieve an equitable, sharing and harmonious community. Orwells motivation lay within his life experiences and influences, as did Swifts. The two novelists had each experienced different forms of power and regime, yet both were able to express and convey the flaws of these authorities in different styles.

Today, Swifts novel would be unbelievable in the context that he wrote it. However, by using this approach, he managed to avoid political retribution. Orwell in comparison, expressed his views, but in an unbelievable style to add interest and amusement. I write it because there is some lie I want to expose, some fact to which I want to draw attention, and my initial concern is to get a hearing. But I could not do the work of writing a book, or even a long magazine article, if it were not also an aesthetic experience.

As with Gullivers Travels, Animal Farm can be read on different levels. It is subtitled a fairy story, drawing the readers attention to the artificial aspects, yet we know it is not a fairy story as there is no happy ending. The reader, by being drawn in has to look closer, exploring and interpreting the true intentions of Orwells writing. Orwell uses animals to make serious moral points. Another example of this is Aesops Fables where the characters do not behave naturally or realistically but are symbolic of certain human attitudes and ideas.

Although Orwell satirizes dictatorship and individuals abuse of power in general, there are many points the novel makes that correspond with the Soviet Union and events following the fall of the Tsar in 117. A few examples of this include many of Marxs ideas lying within Majors speech, the failed attempts to create an equal society, the disagreements between Stalin and Trotsky that correspond with the animals Napoleon and Snowball, and the increase of Stalins, and therefore Napoleons power, in the use of terror and propaganda in becoming a dictator.

Swift satirizes human nature in general, but of individuals putting him and his friends down rather than the society around him, perhaps creating more of a personal retribution in his writing.

Orwell struggled throughout the majority of his life and received conflict at the hands of power, whereas Swift generally had a more comfortable upbringing receiving hardships at the beginning, yet with personal disagreements throughout. Orwell and Swift both satirize the abuse of power and suggest the moral of human nature, that Utopias are not possible due to the flaws that will always be found and created by individuals.

Orwell once said, Totalitarianism has abolished freedom of thought to an extent unheard of in any previous age. He believed this idea was achieved by forbidding freedom of thought or action but also by telling the people exactly what to think.

This is demonstrated in Animal Farm right from the start where Majors statement, whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy has been condensed to four legs good two legs bad in order that the unintelligent sheep could understand the principals of Animalism. This simplification caused its loss of meaning, and later has appalling implications, when used to drown out or prevent uproar and revolt. This parodies the less intelligent masses of the Soviet Union and the disregard of attention to these peoples understandings of events.

There are indications that the proposed utopia will never materialise. The animals society is not an equal one as three pigs are seen immediately taking the best positions in the barn. Some animals are protective to others, whilst others seem intent on fighting amongst themselves. The irony of the first chapter is clear in that it establishes through Majors speech an idealistic vision of the future in contrast of the suffering under Jones. The eventual progress of Animal Farm shows that as the pigs distort Majors ideas, they alter and corrupt the principles of Animalism

The element of realism is introduced by the first actions of the dogs, directly after Majors speech where they attack the rats. This openly contradicts what Major has just stated. The rats represent the majority of the rural peasants whom the revolutionaries tried to shape to their views. Orwell suggests here that human behaviour is essentially selfish and ruthless. Swift made the same point when Gulliver discovered how the court were planning to blind and starve him slowly to death.

In Animal Farm the equality Major emphasized so much is jeopardised by the pigs greater intelligence, with their superior knowledge it was natural that they should assume leadership. By becoming the farms administrators, the pigs avoided physical work. Orwell suggests here that there is not equality, labour not being equivalent to brainwork.

Napoleons rise to power begins from his nature, a large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not much of a talker, but with a reputation for getting his own way. This description implies power through aggression, which is exactly what happens. When Napoleons dictatorship is threatened by Snowball from the animals preference to his idea of the windmill, he is chased out of the farm by the nine dogs. Napoleon, who generally represents Stalin, saw Snowball, representing Trotskys strategies, and his attempts to educate the other animals, as a threat. He understood that if he kept the animals unintelligent, they would be easier to control for his own benefit, rather than the farms.

It is clear these are his intentions from the start, privately rearing the nine puppies. The nine dogs represent the secret police that silenced, many by death, any rebellious individuals. Their presence in the novel adds a sense of fear and darkness that symbolises corruption, while their actual contribution, is by fighting in the battle of the windmill, and even this is beneficial to Napoleons leadership.

Boxer, the hardest working animal on the farm, who is universally respected represents the lower class, hard working society of Russia, without him the farm would not succeed. His two maxims, I will work harder and Napoleon is always right are both results of his experiences at the hands of dictatorship and limits his thought. There is again no thought given to his feelings or emotions, and even his retirement is exploited to the advantage of the pigs.

The pigs use of language makes the suffering of the animals sound acceptable. This is the use of propaganda. Squealers use of this is crucial to Napoleons success in convincing the animals of Napoleons fitness of power and validity for the apparent sacrifices made. Many words and even whole speeches are not fully understood by the animals, and they are not questioned, due to the convincing act Squealer puts on. The threat of the nine dogs, their own vain hope that things are okay, and that their faith in their leaders, prevents them seeing themselves being systematically betrayed.

Propaganda was used throughout the Russian revolution and this is the point Orwell is making, that the shameless use of it has conflicting effects.

Humour is used in both novels to similar effect. In Gullivers Travels, toilet humour is used throughout, to ease myself with making water; which I very plentifully did. This is rare in any writing but Swift continually refers to it, which is quite shocking to the reader. Swift describes his actions with the same tone and format that he uses throughout the story, thereby creating the ironic humour. Orwell similarly applies humour but with greater subtlety, with some difficulty (for it is not easy for a pig to balance on a ladder) Snowball climbed up. Here the reader can imagine the event Orwell has described, which creates the humour. The idea of including humour teaches the reader to study other ideas, specifically the satirical aspect.

Both Orwell and Swift wrote about politics. The treatment they received at the hands of those in power influenced their writing. As Orwell once said, Every line of serious work that I have written since 16 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic Socialism.

Orwell suggested that language had to try, as far as possible to reflect the truth of an issue. In his writing style, thoughtless language and complex writing was avoided, and straightforward wording used. This technique was used in the hope of not misleading the reader and helped make the message as clear as possible. There is the satirical parody here of the contrast of how political writing is often distorted and purposely relays false meanings. Swift was not able to do this with the same impact. This was probably due to the fact, that by making his point too obvious, he would endanger himself from the people he was satirising, this creates a sense of irony.

The main point that both these novels compare on is the great irony in the general outline of each story. Gullivers Travels tell us of the supposedly successful, civilised people of Lilliput. Gulliver exposed them as corrupt, disloyal and animal-likes individuals. Animal Farm however, tells us of these apparent, well-meaning and thoughtful animals that are exposed as having careless, slovenly and corrupt human characteristics.

Despite several hundred years separating the two authors, there are many similarities and contrasts between Gullivers Travels and Animal Farm. The novels were both very successful and were appreciated by a wide audience.

On a personal level I found, Gullivers Travels and Animal Farm equally appealing. I was surprised to find how subtle techniques, use of language and the general style, left me to interpret the writers intentions. Both novels are exceptional and have inspired me to find and explore similar styles of work.

Please note that this sample paper on George Orwell is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on George Orwell, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on George Orwell will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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